Does the Distribution of Coal Deposits
REFUTE the Vapor Canopy Theory ?
Does Plate Tectonics provide the Answer?
"Prior to the Flood the greenhouse effect would have been amplified greatly. An amplified
greenhouse effect would have not only caused the atmosphere to be warmer but would
have tended to create a uniform temperature distribution from equator to poles."
ref: THE SKY HAS FALLEN- IMPACT No. 128 February 1984 by Larry Vardiman, Ph.D.
"The combination of warm temperature
and adequate moisture everywhere would be conducive later to extensive stands of
lush vegetation all over the world, with no barren deserts or ice caps."
ref: The Genesis Record by Henry M. Morris, Baker Book House, June 1991, page 60.
"The genesis Flood removed vast amounts of living biomass" ... "organic material
that now forms the earth's vast coal, oil and oil shale deposits. A conservative
estimate for the pre-Flood biomass is 100 times that of today."
ref: Impact #364, "Carbon Dating Undercuts Evolution's Long Ages" by John Baumgardner,
October 2003. (http://www.icr.org/newsletters/impact/impactoct03.html)
We could then expect the pre-Flood biomass to total about 1851.7 x 10^9 tons times
100 or 185,170 x 10^9 tons and to be evenly distributed over the pre-Flood land surface.
Why then the very uneven distribution of the significant coal resources with 89 percent
located in the northern hemisphere and only 11 percent in Australia, Africa and South America
which have 40 percent of the land surface area and presumedly 40 percent of the
pre-Flood biomass ?
On the other hand the secular scientific theories of coal formation and plate tectonics
would seem to have an explanation.
We see that with the starting of the theorized coal formation periods large portions
of Asia, Europe and North America were located in the tropics area of the globe and
with Africa and South America starting out located in the southern region of the globe
and slowly over time moving up into their present positions. Australia which has significant
coal deposits, starts off in the tropics, moves down and then back up.
Therefore, theoretically during the start of the coal formation ages the continents
with the concentrations of coal resources had been located for extended times in the
tropics regions especially during the Carboniferious Period.
It would seem that to justify the theoretical pre-Flood canopy theory with the
biomass evenly distributed over the global land surface, and that the coal deposits
are due to the Flood, one must also have a reasonable theory for why the Flood
resulted in the uneven distribution of coal deposits, with large areas of the
world today devoid of significant coal deposits ! The secular scientists have
proposed the plate tectonics movement theories which would seem to provide a suitable
Also see Appendix A below concerning a fossil forest discovered in Illinois
that is rooted on a coal seam, "It's an upright forest with trees still standing upright."
There are also many other reasons to discount the vapor canopy theories.
The following from Answers in Genesis at http://www.answersingenesis.org/articles/2009/09/25/feedback-collapse-canopy-model;
"Currently, the pitfalls of the canopy model have grown to such an extent that most researchers have abandoned the model.
For example, if a canopy existed and collapsed at the time of the Flood to supply the rainfall,
the latent heat of condensation would have boiled the atmosphere! And a viable canopy would
not have had enough water vapor in it to sustain 40 days and nights of torrential global rain."
Science in the News
Natural History Highlight
Four Square Miles of Carboniferous Forest Discovered
paleontologist Bill DiMichele and colleagues Howard Falcon-Lang
(University of Bristol), John Nelson and Scott Elrick (Illinois State
Geological Survey), and Phil Ames (Peabody Coal Company) discovered the
remains of one of the world's oldest tropical rainforests, preserved in
the ceiling of a coal mine 250 feet below the surface. Their discovery
was recently published in the journal "Geology" entitled "Ecological
Gradients Within a Pennsylvanian Mire Forest."
rainforest extends over more than four square miles as the roof of two
adjacent underground coal mines in eastern Illinois. This may be the
largest single-time-period fossil forest found in the fossil record.
trunk section. A section of a large trunk has fallen from the roof and
lies in the middle of the floor, to the right of the backpack. In the
background, study coauthors John Nelson and Howard Falcon-Lang are
examining the roof for plant fossils. The sides of the room are the
A forest of lycopsid trees and
tree ferns was uniformly developed throughout this area, and an
understory of horsetails, seed ferns, and cordaitaleans (seed plants
related to conifers) filled in under and around the tree fern-lycopsid
forest where the land was drier. The forest was preserved when an
earthquake dropped the area a few feet allowing flooding from an
adjacent river, which drowned the vegetation and buried it in sediment.
The sudden flooding in the submerged block killed the rainforest. Mud
and silt rushed into the depression, preserving the stumps and logs in
a layer that eventually became shale.
part of a frond of a "seed fern", seen on the mine ceiling or roof. The
roof is the forest floor of the swampy environment in which these
plants were living. Miners removed the coal bed exposing the forest
floor "this would be the worm's eye view" (if worms had eyes!). Seed
ferns were seed-bearing plants that had large, highly compound leaves
much like ferns (hence their descriptive name).
fossils are common in coal beds. Coal is the compacted result of peaty
plant material. These are the remnants of extinct plants from
Carboniferous period 300 million years ago, when the world was covered
in lush, green vegetation. Illinois was near the equator and much
warmer and wetter.
The forest's animal life was also unlike any found today, it was the age of insects.
dragonflies the size of seagulls, and nine-foot-long (three-meter-long)
millipedes roamed the now lost world, the scientists said. But no fossils of these lost animals remain, according to Elrick.
"We only saw a few insect parts," he said.
Falcon-Lang and John Nelson are standing on opposite sides of a large,
prostrate trunk of a giant lycopsid tree. This monster tree is over 6
feet wide and stretches for over 120 feet, neither the base nor the
top can be seen.
Giant tree ferns would have
formed a lower canopy 30 feet high. Poking up through the ferns would
have been 100-foot-tall clubmosses , asparagus-like poles that sprouted
crowns full of spores. "What's extraordinary about this discovery is
that this forest has been preserved in its growth position," said
Falcon-Lang. "It's an upright forest with trees still standing upright."
of lycopsid tree stump buried while still upright, as seen from
underneath. A metal plate keeps the stump from falling and injuring the
miners. The trunk projects up into the roof shale. This stump would
have been "rooted" in the very top of the coal bed.
study author Bill DiMichele said the lateral extent of the fossils
allowed him to notice subtle changes in species diversity as he did
surveys. As mining continues, the size of the exposed fossil forest
grows by the day. DiMichele is now doing inventories of ancient plants
in two other actively mined Illinois coal seams, the Danville and the
Springfield, which sit above and below the Herrin, respectively, and
are separated by about a half-million years of geological time. Where
most botanists do their work by walking through a forest, DiMichele
takes elevators down mine shafts "to get beneath the forest. "We get
to walk under it and look up at it," he said. "It's the earthworm's
Pith cast of Calamites, an extinct sphenopsid, but a close relative of the modern horsetails (Equisetum). Note the nodes (lines around the stem) where leaves and leaf-bearing branches would have been attached.
reconstruction: Peat forming swamps, also known as "mires", formed over
vast parts of what is now the eastern United States and Western Europe
during the later Carboniferous Period. The coal beds of these regions
are the remains of these swampy landscapes. This reconstruction, done
by Mary Parrish of the Department of Paleobiology, shows a forest
dominated by a mixture of lycopsid trees (front right, also with
juvenile tree), tree ferns (center front, with "mantles" of prop roots
extending out from the trunks), seed ferns (left center, short trees
with crown of frond-like leaves), and calamites (right side rear
foreground, with branches in whorls). The forest is open and includes
many vines and low-growing plants.
ground, showing the flat, central Illinois landscape near the Riola
mine. The current landscape is a far cry from the rainforest vegetation
of the Carboniferous Era, 300 million years ago.
vapor canopy theory vs plate tectonics and continental drift,
the vapor canopy theories would seem to be deficient and the plate tectonics and
continental drift theories for why coal is unequally distributed more satisfactory.
The uneven distribution of coal deposits over the
globe would seem to refute the vapor canopy/flood formation theory and favor
the plate tectonics/tropic swamp formation theory. keys: vapor, canopy, vapor canopy
theory, vapor canopy, global vapor canopy, world wide vapor canopy, pre-flood
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